Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Top Secret Facts About Ib 2015 Tok Essay Topics Revealed by Industry Leaders

Top Secret Facts About Ib 2015 Tok Essay Topics Revealed by Industry Leaders Ib 2015 Tok Essay Topics - the Story Our writers want to know more about all sorts of topics regardless of the ib tok essay toughness of the topic. Or you may also mention a couple of unresolved questions this essay has revealed. Secondly, your essay will share exactly the same structure due to the fact that many others and will probably be regarded as as plagiarised. This essay will thus look to perform a critical review of theory and research into the many alternatives and approaches that can be used to control employee strain and ensure it doesn't reach an excessive level that could harm organisational performance and outcomes. The body of your EE should constitute the majority of the essay. This structure is quite a good, step-by-step method it is possible to use on any ToK essay to receive rather high marks. If you would like to do an investigation with a little more mathematical content then take a look at this page for more than 100 ideas for Maths SL and HL students. In the event you want a bit more guidance on how to have an A EE. Whether there are only two books that have any connection to your topic, it could be too narrow. You are able to discover a variety of discounts available on our site, IBuyEssay.com. The titles aren't supposed to be treated just in the abstract, or on the grounds of external authorities. Sometimes you could be asked to settle on a title from a list. Therefore, if there's any reason why you cannot have your extended essay written on time yourself, all you have to do is place your order on our site, and leave the rest to us! Because the subject matter of the program is defined with respect to knowledge problems, there is not any limit to the valid questions that may come up in a TOK program. As you start writing your introduction, bear in mind that you own a limit of 1200 to 1600 words. Pick a teacher who will choose the opportunity to read several drafts and provide you extensive notes. A conclusion is presented. however, it isn't consistently centered on the arguments presented. Ensuring your evidence actually supports your claim is among the toughest characteristics of the essay. The aim is to develop superior questions because doubt has ever been present in science. If not sure, give an authoritative resource for the claim. Factual claims which may be considered common knowledge (for instance, animals aren't capable of performing photosynthesis) do not have to be referenced. Generally speaking, analytical techniques are sometimes not successfully carried out, inducing the essay to shed coherence sometimes because an argument might not be fully followed through. This usually means that while the theories are important and have real value particularly in the growth of theoretical physics, sometimes we're limited by the present inability of application. Given that each and every theory has its limitations, we must retain a multiplicity of theories to comprehend the world. New Ideas Into Ib 2015 Tok Essay Topics Never Before Revealed If your school isn't one already, learn to turn into an IB World School so as to implement the DP. Back previously there was a misconception concerning what cultural anthropology studied. You won't be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and receive an A. It's the reason why I became a teacher. You're able to use this to find out what a TOK Essay looks like and I am hoping that this will motivate you to create your very best TOK Essay to submit to the International Baccalaureate. You may always get in contact with me though the Contact page when you have additional questions, or in the event that you would like me to aid you with your Theory of Knowledge Essay. Doubt can be considered fear of the unknown. These are also called titles. This is a fundamental format you are able to follow for TOK. There's a particular format which should always be followed within TOK.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Baroque Art Depicted the Religious Tensions During that...

Art in the Baroque period was used to depict the religious tensions present at the time. Coincidentally, the philosophy of the time also played a key role in addressing the tensions that existed during the period. As a result of the focus on similar aspects of the society, there emerged numerous similarities between the artwork of the time and the ideas expressed by philosophers such as Descartes and Leibniz. It is critical to assess the views of the different philosophers in order to determine how the artwork was similar to their perceptions of the world. This essay addresses the views of Descartes in relation to the principles of Baroque art. In particular, the essay focuses on the works of Vermeer and Rembrandt, seeking to determine how their art relates to the philosophical views of Descartes. Rembrandt Rembrandt was one of the most influential Baroque artists of the 17th century, with popular works such as the Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, the Night Watch, and Angel Leaving Tobit and Tobias (Open University of Kaohsiung). His success was based on the fact that his work did not go out of fashion. The spiritual life of Holland during the Baroque period required him because he was relevant in presenting ideas about the period in his work. Some of the most successful works of Rembrandt were depictions of biblical stories that he presented in highly relevant detail. The painter represented the scriptures from the Bible in the minutest detail by integrating it with his ownShow MoreRelatedRenaissance Time Capsule1187 Words   |  5 Pagesintroduction to humanities class, I was required to probe for a concealed time capsule from both the Renaissance and the Baroque ages. Thereafter, I was required to identify at least two examples of art, music, architecture, philosophy, and literature depi cted during the periods. By doing so, I expected to identify how these examples reflected world events and cultural blueprints of their periods. The Renaissance refers to the cultural transformations witnessed in Europe between the fourteen-century and theRead MoreTime Capsules from the Renaissance and Baroque Time Periods Essay953 Words   |  4 PagesTwo time capsules were found during renovations of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence. One time capsule dates back to the Renaissance time period. Artifacts in this time capsule included a painting of The Birth of Venus, a lute, drawing of the Florence Cathedral’s dome, and a book called The Decameron. The second time capsule had artifacts from the Baroque time period. Artifacts in this time capsule included a painting of The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, a stage painting in an operaRead MoreThe Evolution of David1112 Words   |  4 Pagesoccurred between the Renaissance and the Baroque Era can be found in the ev olution of David. The most famous David sculptures come from the well-known and talented artists of Michelangelo and Bernini. There have been many David sculptures created throughout time, by such artist as Donatello and Verrocchio, but these works have eclipsed most other works to become sensations that will live forever. Michelangelo’s sculpture of David was created in 1504 during the Renaissance Era. It was commissionedRead MorePainting Analysis Essay1062 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Garden of Love† Peter Paul Rubens’ â€Å"Garden of Love†, encompasses and captures the Baroque ideal of richness and lavishness. The viewer will observe a fusion of the realistic tradition of Flemish painting with the imagination and freedom of Italian renaissance painting. The painting expresses Neoplatonic views while also providing the viewer with endless topics for discussion and analysis, making it a true conversation piece. The â€Å"Garden of Love† depicts a scene of passionate festivities.Read MoreThe Adoration Of Saints1633 Words   |  7 PagesThe Adoration of Saints Baroque is important in regards of European philosophical art history, generating identifiable and stylistic changes in: painting, sculpture and architecture throughout the periods of the late sixteenth century to the early eighteenth. Dominant particularly in the regions of southern Europe such as: Italy, Spain, Portugal, Austria and southern Germany. Baroque is a stylistic movement that often exaggerated motion to: illustrate drama, tension and grandeur features such asRead MoreThe Artistic Style Of Mannerism1826 Words   |  8 Pagesabout 1590 where it had been widely spread in Northern Europe. Early Mannerist period art is known for its anti-Renaissance style which over time developed into a more intellectual style designed to appeal to a more sophisticated patron. Artists of this time, such as Correggio, Fiorentino and Parmigianino, were followers of the Renaissance masters. Mannerism was an artistic approach that focused on the human form, depicted in intricate poses with exag gerated and not always realistic settings. This styleRead MoreThe Rebirth Of The Renaissance999 Words   |  4 Pagesrealm full of astonishing art ranging from the Stone Age, Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Greek and Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic, Middle Ages, Early and High Renaissance, Venetian and Northern Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassical†¦ to our modern art. Each age is either influenced by the previous one or artists explore whole new concepts and innovations to complete something that has never been done before. As new civilizations rise new concepts and techniques for art are formed with them, suchRead MoreThe Works Of Rembrandt And Rubens3351 Words   |  14 PagesWorks of Rembrandt and Rubens During the 17th century, especially after their break from Spain, The United Provinces of the Netherlands became the most prosperous nation in Europe by leading the world in trade, science, and art. Through the huge and one of the first art markets, art became a common household possession and allowed artists to freely express themselves, which is one of the evidential factors in three of the most universally admired artists of the baroque art era. Rubens, an influentialRead MoreHumanities11870 Words   |  48 Pagesprovides an overview on the subject of art appreciation for those entirely new to the subject. This is a complex topic to deal with and it is impossible to have a truly comprehensive discussion on the topic in such a brief essay. The student is advised to consult more advanced texts to gain further understanding of how to appreciate art more fully. HUMANITIES: What is it? †¢ The term Humanities comes from the Latin word, â€Å"humanitas† †¢ It generally refers to art, literature, music, architecture

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Pursuit Of Happyness Movie Review - 958 Words

The Pursuit of Happyness Have you ever struggle to find happiness? The Pursuit of Happyness is a 2006 film written by Steve Conrad and directed by Gabriele Muccino. The film narrated the life story of Chris Gardner, a single father struggling to support his son and accomplish his dreams. The movie highlighted the problems of homelessness and family struggles.. The Pursuit of Happyness stresses an individual’s ability to become successful despite seemingly insurmountable odds, while also highlighting the importance of family support . The Pursuit of Happyness is an excellent and inspirational film based on a true story that is worth watching. It shows the life of Chris Gardner, portrayed by Will Smith. Gardner experiences financial problems because he has trouble finding employment. When his family loses their house, his wife leaves him alone with their son. Chris and his son live in their car until he no longer has enough money to pay for parking tickets leading to the impounding of the car. Without a home or a car, Chris and his son resort to sleeping in public places at night. However, Chris is still determined to turn both their lives around. He invests what little money he has left in a bone density scanner. After the failure of this venture, he then sees a rich stockbroker who inspires him to join that trade as well. The film progresses to show Gardner achieving success as a stockbroker and finally earning the life he and his son have always dreamed of. The filmShow MoreRelatedPursuit Of Happiness Movie Analysis1339 Words   |  6 PagesThe Pursuit of Happiness The movie Pursuit of happyness was based on a true story of a small family. The father, Chris Gardner eventually become’s a single father of a young son because of the struggle of the economy trying to sell bone density scanners .The movie takes place in San Francisco, California in the 1981. In this movie, it shows strength, survival of the economy, and how if you set your mind to get something you want it can change your life around. Success always starts with what

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Charles Dickens Essay Sarcasm Example For Students

Charles Dickens Essay Sarcasm Discuss how Charles Dickens portrays the murder of Nancy in Oliver Twist paying particular attention to his use of setting, character, language and events leading up to the murder  Oliver Twist was written by Charles Dickens. He was born on February 7th 1812 in Landport which is situated in Portsmouth, England. He worked in a blacking factory where shoe polish is produced and Dickens job was to paste labels to the bottles of polish. The working conditions then were dreadfully poor, He was doing this job when he was 12 years old which meant that in those days children had little childhood where they can have fun like nowadays. This was the same age when Oliver worked in the workhouse and because Dickens had experienced working in poor conditions when he was young he made the book more dramatic and more real life and also expresses Olivers feeling well. He saw the results of poor parenting and he himself had witnessed the wretchedness of poverty. Several of his novels draw on these experiences and they include boys living through vindictive and humiliating experiences. One of these was Oliver Twist, this was written to express Dickens feelings towards society and how it needed to be changed so that there was no difference between the rich and the poor and that we are all human beings. Oliver Twist was published in chapters or episodes for a magazine so the reader will want to read on. Dickens also did reading tours where he read extracts to a audience and because he had written the novel himself he captured the tones and the accents of the characters brilliantly. The most shocking and upsetting chapter of the novel is Fatal Consequences which by all accounts was a terrifying experience for the audience listening and reading. At that time stories which had ghosts, crime and suspense were enjoyed. This era was called the Romantic Era. Even though people enjoyed these types of stories, women fainted during the readings such as when he was reading Fatal Consequences, Even Dickens blood pressure and pulse rate went to extreme extents and very high risk. The chapter was so melodramatic even Dickens was shocked and terrified.  Fatal Consequences suggests to us that there will be a tragedy in this chapter, Dickens makes us have sympathy for Nancy during the novel and so when she is murdered we begin to have hatred for Sikes and feel sorry for Nancy. Sikes is referred to as a man and Nancy as a girl. Sikes is thirty five and we think that Nancy is around 16. Later on we discover Sikes Violence towards other people, even animals. This command was accompanied with a kick, which sent the animal to the other end of the room  Straight after we are told about his character, he hates everyone who goes against him and also  .threats promises bribes  people to get them to do something for him. After Sikes introduction who is violent and a greedy character, we get to know more about Nancy. Nancy cares for everyone and even for people she doesnt know:  I wonder whether they can hear it,  she is referring to the men in jail and she calls them:  ..poor fellows  This shows us her compassionate character. On the Other hand Sikes refers them as:  ..Fine young chaps-well theyre as good as dead, so it dont much matter. This compares the two characters from Nancy being compassionate and has feelings for others to Sikes being hard and cold and doesnt care if people even die. Later on in the novel Nancy stops Bill so she can protect Oliver, who is kidnapped. Dickens goes straight into this part of the novel beginning with Sikes aggressive violence:  Stand off from me, or Ill split your head against the wall The housebreaker flung the girl from him to the further end of the room.  Dickens uses different names for Sikes such as ..Mr Sikes, housebreaker,.. man. I think Dickens has done this to show the characters life, ..housebreaker. .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 , .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 .postImageUrl , .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 , .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278:hover , .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278:visited , .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278:active { border:0!important; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278:active , .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278 .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2fb6284d6cf649d59daf70d97f037278:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: A Christmas Carol By Charles Dickens EssayDickens then contrasts Nancy compassion and Skies brutality in detail, This is part of the novel where Nancy has gone to collect Oliver to take him to Sikes, she goes because she knows the others will be violent with him. Nancy calls Oliver Nolly dear as a friend and also making Oliver realize that she will not hurt him.  Oliver could see that he had some power over the girls better feelings, and, for an instant though of appealing to her compassion for his helpless state. This tells us that Oliver can escape from Sikes using the girls better feeling and know that he will be safe with her. Also Nancy cares for Oliver ad a friend because she wants him to escape from Sikes clutches.  I have saved you from being ill-used once, and I will again, and I do now, continued the girl aloud: for those who would have fetched you, if I had not, would have been more rough than meyou will only do harm to yourself and me too, and perhaps be my death. This makes us be on Nancys side but also Dickens uses touching words and also when she says perhaps be my death. Makes us feel sorry for her and also makes us feel that she is risking her life for someone else:  She pointed, hastily, to some livid bruises on her neck and arm; and continued, with great rapidity  Dickens has done this to show the readers that Nancy cares for everyone and loves Bill even though he beats her, these bruises were not from before but they were fresh bruises which were bright red. Even though she was beaten and could not defend herself she still makes others feel safe:  The girl still held Oliver fast by the hand  Sikes treatment of Oliver is very different: Grasping Olivers wrist, and putting the barrel so close to his temple that they touched.  This makes us want to read on more because it scares us that he might shoot Oliver. Later on Dickens puts both Nancy and Sikes together so we can see Nancys love for Sikes and Sikes violence. When Bill is injured Nancy nurses him back to health. As soon as she helps him get up he.

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Not Poor, Just Broke Essay Example

Not Poor, Just Broke Paper I learned most emotions from school. You would think I would have learned most of my feelings from my home life, but I think my parents did the best they could to cover them up and make it seem like everything was fine and dandy. I grew up in a museum of sorts, or a playhouse. Everything was staged and we had to act in a proper manner to make it look like we had a perfect life. When my mom was upset, she would pull herself together in a moments time and say we need to â€Å"keep up appearances† so no one was the wiser. I would pay close attention to my parents to try and iscover how they really felt, but they were remarkable actors. So I became a player, performing in my own life as well. It was in school where I learned what real emotion was. And how to handle it. How do you pretend one way when you feel another way? I would imagine that is why some of the other kids act out. They are in a certain life, pretending to be something they are not but don’t want to let on t o the truth of their real emotions. I remember this other student who went to school with me. I felt bad for him most of the time because he always came to school kind f dirty and shabby. His family barely had any money and I don’t think his father was around. One day in class, there was a big scene when the teacher made it a point to single him out as a needed student and mention that everyone knows he doesn’t have a father. I’m not sure about his family but he seemed to just barely be holding it together. The teacher picked on him a lot, which I know bothered him. It bothered me as well. I felt sad for Page 2 of 2 him, but then I would remember my mother and trying to keep up appearances. He had a crush on my friend. I don’t think e knew that we all knew he liked her. I felt ashamed that we would make fun of him behind his back and call him names. I think back about how I use to act differently with my friends at school than I did at home. I wish I had learned more from my patents because I know now that most of my childhood friends were not the best influence on my developing emotions. That day when the teacher picked on him, I felt asha med. But I just kept smiling and pretending nothing was wrong. I wish I would have reached out to him and been a little more nice. It was a lesson well learned. We will write a custom essay sample on Not Poor, Just Broke specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Not Poor, Just Broke specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Not Poor, Just Broke specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Unknown Microbiology Lab Report Essays

Unknown Microbiology Lab Report Essays Unknown Microbiology Lab Report Paper Unknown Microbiology Lab Report Paper Materials and Methods A mixed culture of two unknown bacteria was provided by the instructor. The methods used for identification of the two unknown bacteria were in the laboratory manual by Dry. Floyd and Dry. Kennedy (1) unless otherwise noted. The first step that was used was a three streak method, described in Lab 4, on a Blood Heart Infused/Triplicate Soy Agar plate to isolate the two unknown bacteria. Once the two bacteria were incubated, grown, and isolated they were each individually streaked on a Triplicate Soy Agar plate to isolate individual loonies to be studied, tested and identified. After incubation of the individual TTS plates, the morphologies were viewed and noted and a Gram stain was completed on each individual bacterium, which will be referred to as Bacteria #1 and Bacteria #2. After the Gram reaction was determined on Bacteria #1 and Bacteria #2, different biochemical tests were done according to the dichotomous keys provided in the lab manual. All the tests were performed by the methods outlined in the lab manual by Dry. Floyd and Dry. Kennedy (1). Table 1 and Table 2 list the tests performed, purpose, and results. Also Flow Chart 1 and Flow Chart 2 will show the results. Results The Unknown Bacteria 36/ Bacteria #1 on a TTS plate was examined by the naked eye and under a dissecting microscope. Bacteria # 1 was approximately 2 mm in diameter. They were circular in form with an entire margin and convex elevation. The colonies were smooth, translucent, and had a white brownish color. The Gram stain resulted in Gram positive Cisco. After the Gram stain was completed, the bacteria were streaked on a Imitation-Salt Agar plate and a Catalane test was performed. After these test were completed a Phenol Red Dextrose Fermentation tube was inoculated, and a SIMI Tube inoculated. The Unknown Bacteria 36/Bacteria # 2 on a TTS plate was examined by the naked eye and under a dissecting microscope. Bacteria # 2 was approximately 3 4 mm in diameter. They were circular in form with an entire margin and a flat elevation. The colonies were rough (granular), translucent, and white brownish color with black granules. The Gram stain resulted in a Gram negative rod. After the Gram stain was completed, the bacteria were streaked on an Eosin -Methyl Blue Agar plate and an Underwrote II was inoculated. See Table 1 and Flow Chart 1 for results of Bacteria # 1 and Table 2 and Flow Chart 2 for results of Bacteria # 2. Table 1: Biochemical Test Results (Bacteria # TEST I PURPOSE I REAGENTS OBSERVATIONS RESULTS I Gram Stain I To determine the Gram reaction of Bacteria #1 | Crystal violet, Iodine, Alcohol, Seafaring I Purple Cisco I Gram positive Cisco I MASS Agar plate I To determine Gram positive Staphylococcus species I None I Yellow halo around streak I Staphylococcus erasures I Catalane Test I To verify bacteria identification I Hydrogen peroxide I No bubbling Negative I Phenol Red Dextrose Fermentation Tube I To verify bacteria identification I None Reagent turned yellow ; no gas produced I Fermentation of Glucose ; Does not produce gas I SIMI Tube I To verify bacteria identification I Kavas I Yellow color before and after reagent added. Single streak at line of stab I Sulfide negative Indolent negotiation motile I Table 2: Biochemical Test Results (Bacteria # 2) Gram Stain I To determine the Gram reaction of Bacteria #21 Crystal violet, Iodine, Alcohol, Seafaring I Pink rods I Gram negative rods I EMBED Agar late I To determine the ability to ferment lactose I None I Dark purple streak I Fermentation of Lactose I Underwrote II I Identify bacteria I Kavas I Interpreted results using the interpretation color chart. Added reagent resulted in Indolent negative I Escherichia cold-blooded 34760 | FLOW CHART 1 BACTERIA # 1 FLOW CHART 2 BACTERIA # 2 It has been concluded that the Unknown 36/Bacteria # 1 is Staphylococcus erasures and Unknown 36/Bacteria # 2 is Escherichia coli. This was accomplished by first streaking a BI/TTS infused plate with the Unknown 36 broth to isolate he two bacteria. Once two different bacterial growths were observed, each different bacterium was streaked on individual TTS plates to isolate colonies for Gram staining and biochemical tests. Gram staining resulted in Bacteria # 1 being Gram positive Cisco and Bacteria # 2 being Gram negative rods. Following the dichotomous key, Bacteria # 1 was streaked on a MASS plate. Fermentation was noted resulting in S. Erasures being identified. A Catalane test was performed to verify the identification of S. Erasures; however, the test was negative when it should have been positive. A false negative can result from the reagent not being fresh or not stored properly and/or the test run on cultures over 24 hours old. Because of this, a Phenol Red Dextrose Fermentation tube and a SIMI tube were inoculated to confirm the bacteria were S. Erasures. Results from both test was consistent with S. Erasures characteristics. Staphylococcus erasures is a facultative anaerobic Gram positive Cisco that is salt tolerant. This bacterium is part of our normal flora found on human skin and in human nasal passages. S. Erasures is the cause of many minor infections such as follicular and pimples to more severe sissies such as pneumonia and toxic shock syndrome. Following the dichotomous key Bacteria # 2 was inoculated into an Underwrote II. Also for verification an EMBED plate was streaked. Using the color interpretation guide for the Underwrote II a five digit code was reached. Once the code was recorded a code manual was used which identified Bacteria # 2 as Escherichia coli. The EMBED plate showed fermentation of lactose which is consistent with E. Coli characteristics. Escherichia coli are a member of the Interchangeable family and are part of human and warm blood animals normal intestinal flora.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Introduction to the lab report on controlling barley powdery mildew Essay

Introduction to the lab report on controlling barley powdery mildew - Essay Example Cultural methods of control: Cultural methods of control of powdery mildew aim to ensure the eradication of inoculums from volunteer cereals and crop debris by disposing them and ensuring the removal of suitable conditions for disease development. Thus volunteer cereals which carry the inoculums through winter are uprooted and removed, and the cleistothecia inhabiting the crop residue too is eradicated by disposing off the crop residue. Other cultural practices used for control of powdery mildew in barley are application of larger quantities of nitrogen fertilizers, crop rotation and late sowing of the crop (Brooks, 1970). Chemical Control: Chemical agents used for control of powdery mildew in barley include azole fungicides and morpholine based fungicides. Systemic treatment of seed with azole fungicide was able to control the disease development on the saplings for a few weeks. Later if the disease appeared the same was applied on the leaves. However, with years of usage the E. gra minis has developed tolerance for this fungicide, thereby limiting their use and efficiency (Brown, 2002). Morpholine based fungicides are now used for chemical control of powdery mildew. ... The first pathway involves resistance imparted by recessive alleles at Mlo locus. It further requires two more host genes namely, Ror1 and Ror2 (Buschages et al., 1997). The resistance resulting as a consequence of this pathway is able to protect barley plant from all powdery mildew strains tested as yet. The other pathway involves collaborative action of multiple race specific resistance genes collectively known as R gene e.g. Mla, Mlg, Mlk etc (Jorgensen, 1994). Resistance imparted by the Mlo locus: Durable resistance The term durable resistance is indicative of the fact that resistance acquired by the plant is and will remain effective against all known and yet to appear varieties of the pathogen. This is the significance of the Mlo allele and the disease resistance imparted by it. Moreover the Mlo mutant allele renders the barley plant resistant exclusively to powdery mildew pathogen and has no effect on the activity of any other disease causing organism. Wild type Mlo allele enc odes a cell membrane receptor protein (Mlo protein) and is the dominant allele. It is the recessive and non functional allele which is responsible for powdery mildew resistance (Buschages et al., 1997). It has been reported that Mlo protein is imperative for the successful colonization of the pathogen in absence of which the fungal spores are unable to penetrate the epidermal cell layer of the host (Buschages et al., 1997). This is unlike the mechanism of resistance development by most resistant imparting genes, i.e. hypersensitivity (Shirasu and Schulze-Lefert, 2000). The first mutant at Mlo locus was introduced in 1942 the mutation caused by application of X-rays, and ever since improvements have been continuously done with